Chasing the Aurora Borealis: A Guide to the Northern Lights

The Northern Lights, or Aurora Borealis, offer a breathtaking natural spectacle, showcasing ethereal waves of color that illuminate the night skies of the polar regions. This magnificent display not only captivates photographers and nature enthusiasts but also holds a mystical significance in various cultures. Observing the aurora is a bucket-list experience for many, and understanding the science behind this phenomenon can significantly enhance the viewing experience. This article explores the intricate details behind the aurora, identifies the optimal times for viewing, and lists the best spots around the world to witness this celestial dance.

Scientific Explanation of the Northern Lights

The Northern Lights are a stunning display of Earth’s atmospheric gases reacting to charged particles from the sun. These particles are blown towards Earth by the solar wind and are drawn towards the poles by Earth’s magnetic field. When these charged particles collide with oxygen and nitrogen in the Earth’s atmosphere, they excite these gases, causing them to light up and produce vibrant displays across the sky. The color of the aurora is determined by the type of gas involved and the altitude at which the collision occurs. Oxygen produces green and red auroras while nitrogen gives off blue and purple colors.

Solar activity plays a crucial role in the frequency and intensity of the Northern Lights. During peak solar cycles, increased solar flares and coronal mass ejections enhance the flow of charged particles towards Earth, making the aurora more frequent and visible further from the poles.

Best Times to See the Northern Lights

The aurora can be viewed throughout the year but is most visible during the winter months in the Northern Hemisphere, from September to April. This period provides long, dark nights, which are essential for seeing the aurora’s faint glow. The lights are best viewed away from city light pollution, under clear, cloudless skies. The frequency of auroral displays correlates with the 11-year solar cycle; during maximum solar activity, the chances of seeing the Northern Lights increase significantly.

The equinoxes in March and September are also excellent times for aurora viewing due to enhanced geomagnetic activity caused by the alignment of the Earth’s axis and the sun.

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Northern Lights in Iceland: When and Where to See the Aurora Borealis

Top Locations to See the Northern Lights


Norway: Tromsø is one of the top destinations for Northern Lights enthusiasts, thanks to its location within the auroral oval. The surrounding areas, like the Lofoten Islands and Svalbard, offer dramatic landscapes against which the lights are particularly striking. Svalbard also provides the unique phenomenon of the “Polar Night” when the sun does not rise above the horizon, providing 24 hours of darkness in which to view the lights during winter.

Sweden: The Abisko National Park, known for its clear skies, is one of the best places in the world to see the Northern Lights. The “blue hole” of Abisko—a patch of sky over the Torneträsk Lake that is often clear despite overcast weather in surrounding areas—provides exceptional viewing conditions.

Finland: Finnish Lapland is famed for its glass igloos and luxury accommodations designed specifically for aurora viewing, offering comfort and warmth as you watch the skies. The region’s sparse population and minimal light pollution make it an ideal aurora watching locale.

North America

Canada: The Aurora Village near Yellowknife offers heated seats and optimal viewing conditions with a high chance of aurora sightings. In Manitoba, the town of Churchill along the Hudson Bay not only offers northern lights but also the thrilling sight of migrating polar bears in the fall.

Alaska: Fairbanks’ location under the “Auroral Oval” makes it another prime spot for viewing. The cold, clear nights provide perfect conditions for the lights, and numerous tours and lodges cater to winter visitors.

Other Locations Worldwide

Iceland: The entire country is a hotspot for aurora hunters. From the capital, Reykjavik, to the remote Westfjords, viewers are almost guaranteed a show during the winter months. Thingvellir National Park offers not only aurora but also incredible geological features as part of Iceland’s Golden Circle.

Russia: Murmansk in the northwest of Russia lies above the Arctic Circle and offers long nights for viewing the Northern Lights. The remote region of Siberia, while less accessible, can provide spectacular aurora displays for those willing to venture off the beaten path.

Scotland: The Shetland Islands and the Outer Hebrides offer some of the UK’s best chances for aurora viewing, with their northern latitudes and dark skies.

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Iceland | 5 days • 2 guests | Land of Northern Lights Winter Getaway

Photography Tips for Capturing the Northern Lights

Photographing the Northern Lights is an art that combines patience, timing, and technical skills. Here are more detailed tips to help you capture this natural wonder:

Camera Setup and Settings

  • Camera: Use a camera that allows full manual control of ISO, aperture, and shutter speed. Mirrorless and DSLR cameras are preferred.
  • Lens: A fast wide-angle lens is ideal, preferably with an f/2.8 aperture or wider to capture as much light as possible.
  • ISO Settings: Start at ISO 1600 and adjust as needed. High ISO can introduce noise, so find a balance between brightness and image quality.
  • Shutter Speed: Depending on the aurora’s activity, shutter speeds can vary from 5 to 30 seconds. Less active aurora may require longer exposures.
  • Focus: Set your lens to manual focus and adjust to infinity. Check and refine focus using the camera’s live view on a bright star or distant light.

Practical Tips

  • Scout Your Location: Choose a spot with minimal light pollution and a clear view of the northern horizon. Lakes or rivers can provide beautiful reflections in your photos.
  • Use a Tripod: A sturdy tripod is essential to avoid camera shake during long exposures.
  • Dress Appropriately: Wear multiple layers and use hand warmers to stay comfortable during long nights outside.
  • Monitor Aurora Forecasts: Websites and apps provide forecasts that can predict solar activity and the likelihood of auroral displays, helping you plan your shoots.
Northern Lights in Iceland: When and Where to See the Aurora Borealis

Cultural Significance of the Northern Lights

The aurora borealis has held a significant place in the folklore and cultural beliefs of many indigenous peoples across the Arctic regions. For centuries, these lights have inspired a variety of myths and legends, reflecting the awe and reverence they inspire in human observers.

Indigenous Beliefs and Legends

  • Sami People: In Sami mythology, the lights were seen as the energies of the souls of the deceased. It was believed that one should behave respectfully when the lights appeared, speaking softly and avoiding outdoor activities.
  • Inuit Cultures: Among the Inuit of Alaska, the aurora was believed to be the spirits of the animals they hunted: the seals, salmon, deer, and beluga whales. Some stories suggest that the lights were the spirits of human beings dancing in the sky.
  • Viking Lore: Norse mythology often associated the northern lights with reflections from the shields and armor of the Valkyrie, warrior maidens who led fallen warriors to the afterlife in Valhalla.
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Modern Interpretations and Celebrations

Today, the cultural significance of the Northern Lights has evolved but not diminished. Many northern communities host aurora festivals that include storytelling, native dances, and educational programs, allowing visitors to experience not only the natural wonder but also the rich cultural heritage that surrounds it. These celebrations can provide a deeper, more meaningful connection to the phenomenon.

Personal Experiences and Travel Tips

Stories from the Field

Travelers often share that seeing the Northern Lights in person evokes profound feelings of wonder and connection to the natural world. One photographer described the experience as “watching the sky dance with colors,” a moment that reminded him of the vastness and beauty of our planet.

Making the Most of Your Trip

  • Plan for Multiple Nights: Auroral activity is unpredictable, so plan to spend several nights in the area to increase your chances of a sighting.
  • Local Tours: Consider booking a tour with local guides who know the best spots and times for auroral viewing.
  • Cultural Activities: Engage with local cultures by participating in other Arctic activities such as dog sledding, ice fishing, or a sauna experience, which are often offered by local resorts and tour operators.

The Northern Lights are more than just a stunning natural phenomenon; they are a gateway to exploring diverse cultures, histories, and landscapes. Whether you capture them through a lens or absorb their splendor with the naked eye, each experience is unique and deeply personal. Armed with knowledge, respect, and curiosity, your journey to see the aurora borealis will be as enriching as it is unforgettable.


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